Hay Description Specification

Draft 13 · October 26, 2018

Document status

Document status:
Draft 13
Last update:
October 26, 2018
Editor:
John Harris
Contributors:
John Harris
Renée Noto
Wishwa Weerasinghe
Preliminary Specification:
This document represents a preliminary product definition for hay ("hay description specification") for a commodities information system. It is incomplete, subject to revision, and intended for discussion purposes only.

Introduction

Hay is a global agricultural commodity that nourishes dairy and beef cattle, horses, goats, camels, sheep, and other animals. In the U.S., hay ranks among the leading cash crops in annual sales value, along with corn, wheat, and soybeans. Unlike these other products for which exchange-traded-futures markets exist, however, hay trades solely on an "over-the-counter" basis, whether through peer-to-peer negotiation, dealers, or brokers.

Many experts cite a lack of common grading standards as a factor hampering the market for hay. The lack of standards and related disclosures impede price discovery, create downstream inefficiencies, and can even be negative factors for animal health. As a result, hay tends to trade locally to a greater extent than may be economically efficient. Producers and consumers may lack a sound basis for predicting supply and demand, resulting in unnecessary shortages and excessive price volatility. Suppliers of factors of production, whether for production automation, fertilization, weed control, testing, transportation, or other goods and services may lack the price signals and other data that might otherwise induce them to invest in development of better products and distribution means.

The lack of hay standards is a long-established problem that dates at least to the late nineteenth century when centralized hay markets existed in Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco, and elsewhere. For at least eighty years various associations of hay producers and dealers, the United States Department of Agriculture, and others have sought to promulgate useful grading standards. Experts from universities and agricultural extension programs have written on the need for standards and benefits that market adoption of such standards may hold. Market participants have embraced standards proposals from time to time, but none of these has achieved common and long-standing use.

Several market developments renew hope that broadly-accepted standards may finally emerge. Alfalfa hay has become a significant export commodity for producers in Australia, Canada, South Africa, the United States, and elsewhere. Its consumers require that producers make certain representations as to the quality and healthfulness of their products. Chemical and spectroscopic tests are now available to supplement and even supplant the old methods of visual inspection for hay-grading purposes, and we have new means of tracking hay from field to its ultimate consumer. Sound testing protocols and laboratories are readily available to producers and consumers. And the Internet provides a global, relatively inexpensive way for market participants to collaborate on the development of standards and to communicate standards-compliant information concerning hay products.

New and improved commodities information systems may be able to assist the hay market in several ways, including provision of tools to help producers better characterize their hay for marketing purposes. For maximum effectiveness, however, such systems must utilize formal, well-structured "product definitions." The term ''product definition'' means a standard description model for a financial good or commodity that supports and promotes expression of substantially all of its economically-salient characteristics. In commodities futures markets, for example, contract specifications serve as the product definitions for exchange-traded goods.

If grading standards for hay were well-established and economically meaningful, product definitions for hay would almost certainly reference them. For example, product definitions would likely include one or more fields for expression of hay grades and related information. But in the absence of such grading standards, the use of well-designed product definitions or standard description models can help to reveal a sound basis for grading standards through actual market practice and data.

This document sets forth preliminary requirements for a workable product definition for hay, suitable for use in commodities information systems, electronic markets, and internal systems, as well as traditional, over-the-counter sourcing and marketing arrangements.

Preliminary definition

The table below sets forth on a preliminary basis the data fields, associated data types, and related values necessary to express the salient economic characteristics of hay for marketing purposes. The reader may think of the product definition as general, formal model of hay as a cash crop and the actual hay to be offered for sale in the market as "instances" of the model. The model assumes the perspectives both of the diligent buyer and the candid seller. It provides a structured means for expressing what would the buyer need to know in order to make a well-informed purchase and to be able to compare the product with others offered on the market, and what would a well-intentioned seller wish to convey about his product so that both he and his customer will enjoy a mutually-satisfying trade.

Known deficiencies

The preliminary definition lacks expressive capacity at this time for several practices and product features for which future elaboration may be desirable. These include details concerning herbicide and preservative applications, choice of sampling protocols, and several laboratory measures. To the extent users determine the product definition would be improved through addition or modification of fields to hold these values, it will be extended accordingly.

Field names and data types

Field names and data types are indicative only. Whether for internal data representation or application program or graphical interface purposes, users of this standard are free to use different field names and data types.

Data element hay_single_lot_traceable

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Many producers of goods ranging from foods to medicines to industrial equipment employ the concept of a defined "lot" of a given product for quality control, assurance, and traceability purposes. We define "lot discipline" as the regular, commercial practice of identifying and segregating goods by defined lots.

The production, marketing, and purchase of hay traceable to defined lots is a beneficial practice with broad scientific and agronomic support. A single lot of hay is "forage taken from the same farm, field, and cut under uniform conditions within a 48-hour time period. A lot can represent several truck or wagon loads, but all the forage should have been harvested and stored under identical conditions." We adopt this definition from the sidebar on page 10 of Understanding Forage Quality (see citation for "Ball" in the reference section below), but note that it appears in substantially the same form in numerous academic and agricultural extension service publications.

This field may be implemented as a boolean data type, with "true" representing the seller's affirmation that hay he offers to the market is traceable to a single lot as defined. At some point in the future, should lot discipline become commonplace in the hay market, it may be sensible for this affirmation to be a default value of the product definition. In such case, sellers representing their hay in accordance with the standard description model would implicitly affirm that the hay they offer to the market is traceable by lot as such term is then defined.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may generate lot identifiers automatically and then let users map their own identifiers to the system-generated ones. Presuming we validate that approach as useful, we will extend this definition by adding an optionally-repeating component block or comparable device to allow users to add one or more fields to hold these values. This would be useful, e.g., for linking test results to listings.

Data element intended_livestock_use

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Dairy | Beef | Horse | Goat | Sheep | Deer | Camel | Landscape ]

Data element hay_mixed_sward

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

A "sward" is an "expanse of short grass." Growers may choose to produce "pure" (monoculture) or "mixed" (polyculture) swards of hay and consequently, pure or mixed forage. A pure sward contains hay of the same species, subspecies, or variety, e.g., the Tifton 85 cultivar of coastal bermudagrass. A mixed sward contains two or more species, subspecies, or varieties, e.g., an alfalfa/timothy mix.

This field supports expression of the grower's intention and not necessarily the result. If implemented as a boolean data type as suggested, "true" expresses that the grower intended to produce mixed hay, while "false" expresses that the grower intended to produce pure hay.

The emphasis on intention rather than result accounts for the possibility of infiltration of a sward by unintended vegetation ("weeds"). This unintended vegetation may even serve as a forage crop itself. For example, bahia grass may deliberately be raised as hay, but when infiltrating an otherwise pure sward of coastal bermudagrass, bahia grass acts as a weed. And, in some markets, all bermudagrass hays are treated as noxious weeds.

If a grower intends to produce a pure crop but what results is a crop with significant weeds, this field should still take a value of "false," as the grower intended a pure sward. Similarly, if the grower intends to produce a mixed crop but only one variety survives to harvest, this field should still take a value of "true." We use the variety_representation_target and variety_representation_result fields, respectively, part of a conditionally-repeating group of fields, to account for differences between intentions and results.

Data element hay_variety_instances

Data type
int
Valid values
A positive integer representing the quantity of hay varieties purposefully grown in the sward. A pure sward always takes a value of "1." A mixed sward must take a value of "2" or more.

This field serves both marketing and technological purposes. From a marketing perspective, it allows the farmer to express how many varieties of hay he has meant to include in his bales. Technologically, it reports how many instances of the following hay_variety_component_block a message or database table will contain.

Arguably, the presence of this field makes the preceding, hay_mixed_sward field superfluous. Implicitly, a value of "1" for this field means "pure sward," whereas a value greater than "1" means "mixed sward." We include both fields for the time being, principally to emphasize the importance of disclosing whether hay is pure or mixed and to help draw a distinction between what the grower intends and what actually results. We concede that this field alone may suffice and that the product definition may be improved through future removal of the hay_mixed_sward field.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard should validate values for this field against values for the preceding, hay_mixed_sward field. If hay_mixed_sward is false, the value of this field should be "1." On the other hand, if hay_mixed_sward is true, then the value of this field should be "2" or greater.

=== BEGIN CONDITIONALLY-REPEATING COMPONENT BLOCK ===

Conditionally-repeating block hay_variety_component_block.

Repeat for number of hay-variety instances in sward, if two or more. Otherwise use each element once.

Data element hay_variety

Data type
enum
Valid values
An enumerated value corresponding to a specific hay species, subspecies, or variety, e.g., alfalfa, timothy, coastal bermudagrass, Tifton 85, etc., from an open, freely-available database maintained by Fieldgram or another organization. Ideally this should include the binomial ("scientific") name, common name, and indication of genetic-modification status ("GMO" or "non-GMO").

Hay can be produced from thousands of plant varieties or, in the case of mixed hay, combinations of such varieties. This field is part of a component block that the seller may repeat as often as necessary in order to disclose all plant varieties included in the hay he is marketing. Hay the seller represents as pure hay will have one such variety, and thus only one instance of this field. Hay represented as mixed hay will have two or more varieties and a corresponding number of instances of this field. The seller should be as specific as possible in characterizing his hay. For example, if he knows his hay consists of either the Maverick, Vernal, or Archer varieties of alfalfa, he should use that level of precision rather than simply describing his hay as "alfalfa."

Note:

Because of the large number of plant varieties from which hay may be produced, systems implementing this standard may benefit from the use of auto-completion functionality in user-interfaces controls. This may ease the variety-specification task for the seller.

Data element variety_representation_target

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the part of this hay for which this hay variety is intended to account, in relation to the whole. For a monoculture, enter "100" and do not repeat the component block. For mixed hays, the fractional contribution for each variety will be determined by dividing the target value entered for each by the sum of all the target values. For example, if three varieties are used and each is assigned a value of one, the sum will be three and the target contribution of each particular variety will be one divided by three, or one third.

In planning a hay crop, a grower may intend to produce either a pure or mixed forage. For example, the grower may intend a crop consisting of 80% orchard grass and 20% alfalfa. This field allows the grower to express, for the hay variety in this instance of the component block, the proportion of this variety in relation to the whole.

We use proportions rather than percentages for simplicity, to conserve memory, and because some fractions simplify in decimal form to infinite series (e.g., one third).

Note:

For memory conservation systems may implement this field using a data type of "int" and then convert to other data type(s) as necessary.

Data element variety_representation_result

Data type
float
Valid values
Enter an integer representing the estimated percentage of this hay for which this hay variety accounts based on actual observation or measurement, rounded to the nearest whole number. Allow for weeds and other varieties in making this estimate.

For each hay variety selected, the seller should express a percentage, rounded to the nearest percentage point, representing the seller's appraisal of this variety's contribution to the overall hay. A value of "100" for this field would correspond to pure, weed-free hay.

Note:

For memory conservation systems may implement this field using a data type of "int" and then convert to other data type(s) as necessary.

Data element maturity_at_harvest

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Before blossom or heading | Early blossom or early heading | Mid-to-late bloom or head | Seed stage ]

Forage quality generally declines with maturity. This field allows the seller to disclose maturity for each hay variety present in the hay. Classification scheme sourced from page 6 of Bates.

=== END CONDITIONALLY-REPEATING COMPONENT BLOCK ===

Data element hay_origin_country

Data type
string
Valid values
A two-character string from the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code list, representing the applicable, two-letter code for country of origin.

Data element hay_origin_subdivision

Data type
string
Valid values
A string of up to three alphanumeric characters from the ISO 3166-2 list of country subdivision codes, representing states, dependent territories, administrative divisions, or other subdivisions of various countries.

Data element hay_origin_county

Data type
string
Valid values
A string identifying the county, parish, or other political subdivision of origin, immediately following in jurisdictional rank the subdivision from the ISO 3166-2 list.

Important especially in the U.S. for epidemiological and agricultural extension services purposes.

Data element hay_origin_postal

Data type
string
Valid values
An alphanumeric string representing the postal code of origin, if such code exists, is known, and the seller is willing to disclose this information. If hay originates in a country lacking a postal-code system, enter "None." If hay originates in a country with a postal-code system but the seller does not know the code, enter "Unknown." If the seller knows but is unwilling to disclose the postal code, enter "Withheld."

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may be able to populate this field automatically for the user, using street address for example. In the U.S., about ten percent of postal codes cross jurisdictional (town, county, or state) boundaries, so implementers should exercise caution in inferring other location information from such codes.

Data element source_field_elevation

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude of the average elevation of the source field(s) for this hay in relation to sea level, rounded to the nearest whole number, whether in meters or feet. Use the field source_field_elevation_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude.

The elevation of a field determines in part the temperatures and other weather conditions under which forage is grown and which weeds and pests are likely to require management.

Data element source_field_elevation_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ meters | feet ]

Data element source_field_climate_class

Data type
string
Valid values
The three-character, Köppen climate classification for the source field(s) for this hay. If the source fields are too distant from one another to fall under a single climate class, enter "var" for "various."

While we often think of climate as an atmospheric phenomenon, climate classification actually reflects what kind of vegetation naturally prevails in a certain area. The Köppen classification system is well-established and readily accessible. In future versions of the product definition, it may be prudent to allow users to choose from several classification schemes or else to use another by default.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may populate this field with values sourced automatically from other databases, based upon location information the user supplies.

Data element source_field_area

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude of the area of the source field(s) for this hay, rounded to the nearest whole number, whether in hectares or acres. Use the field source_field_area_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude. Use "0" if unknown.

The variability of hay from one bale to the next depends on a variety of factors, including soil conditions, weather, weeds, and pests. As a rule, the larger the area of the source field (or fields) for a forage, the greater will be the variability in quality and anti-quality factors for that forage.

Data element source_field_area_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ hectares | acres ]

Data element irrigation_method_available

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ none | flood | sprinkler | pivot | drip ]

Data element irrigation_method_used

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ none | flood | sprinkler | pivot | drip ]

Data element source_stand_age

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the age in years of the stand(s) from which this hay is harvested, rounded up to the nearest year. Use "0" if unknown or the hay was harvested from stands of different ages.

Data element last_fertilized_nitrogen

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the last date of nitrogen fertilization for this hay, or "00000000" if not nitrogen-fertilized.

Data element last_fertilized_potassium

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the last date of potassium fertilization for this hay, or "00000000" if not potassium-fertilized.

Data element last_fertilized_phosphorous

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the last date of phosphorous fertilization for this hay, or "00000000" if not phosphorous-fertilized.

Data element amount_fertilized_nitrogen

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude, rounded to the nearest whole unit, of the last nitrogen application for this hay, or "0" if not nitrogen-fertilized. Use the field amount_fertilized_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude.

Data element amount_fertilized_potassium

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude, rounded to the nearest whole unit, of the last potassium application for this hay, or "0" if not potassium-fertilized. Use the field amount_fertilized_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude.

Data element amount_fertilized_phosphorous

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude, rounded to the nearest whole unit, of the last phosphorous application for this hay, or "0" if not phosphorous-fertilized. Use the field amount_fertilized_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude.

Data element amount_fertilized_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ kilograms per hectare | pounds per acre]

Data element hay_certified_organic

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_certified_weed_free

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_conditioned

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

Conditioning is the crimping or crushing of stems to promote faster drying by exposing more surface area to air. While this is generally a beneficial practice, conditioning is a risk factor for alfalfa that is subject to blister-beetle infestation. Conditioning blister-beetle-infested alfalfa can prevent escape of the beetles and crush them, causing release of their cantharidin toxin into the hay. Disclosure of conditioning practices for alfalfa therefore assists with blister-beetle risk assessments.

Data element hay_herbicide_treated

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

Data element hay_preservative_applied

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

Data element hay_coloring_agent_used

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

Data element harvest_date_start

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the commencement date of the harvest for this hay.

Mowing is generally the first step in harvesting hay and thus represents the commencement of a specific harvest. Identifying the harvest start date informs the consumer as to the age of the hay and season of the harvest. This information may also be useful in ascertaining local weather conditions for the harvest.

Note:

This note applies both to this field and to the harvest_date_end field. The seller may lack specific knowledge of harvest start and end dates and only be able to estimate these dates. A protocol for using estimated dates is feasible through the use of double-zero values for day of month or even month of year. A double zero in the day field would mean that the seller is confident as to the month of the applicable harvest date but not the day. Double zeroes in both the day and month places would mean the seller is confident of the year of harvest but neither the month nor day.

Data element harvest_date_end

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the conclusion date for the harvest for this hay. This date value may be same as, but not prior to, that for harvest_date_start. May not be more than two days after harvest_date_start, according to current, working definition of lot, if single-lot-traceability is claimed.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard should evaluate the difference in days between harvest_date_start and harvest_date_end and compare the result with the value provided for hay_single_lot. If hay_single_lot is true, then the difference in days must be two or fewer.

Data element hay_cutting

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing which cutting of the harvest season produced this hay, i.e., "1" for first cut, "2" for second cut, "12" for twelfth cut, and so forth. If unknown, enter "0" (zero).

Data element source_field_yield

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer representing the magnitude of the yield from the source field(s) for this hay, rounded to the nearest whole number, whether in metric, long, or short tons. Use the field source_field_yield_units to specify the unit of measure for this magnitude.

For purposes of this field, we define "yield" as the product of (a) number of bales and (b) average bale weight.

Data element source_field_yield_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ metric tons | British (long) tons | U.S. (short) tons ]

Data element weather_damage_windrow_rain

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received rainfall in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that no rain fell on the windrow, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay received rainfall.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_snow

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received snow in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that no snow fell on the windrow, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay received snowfall.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_sleet

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received sleet in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that no sleet fell on the windrow, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay received sleet.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_hail

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received hail in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that no hail fell on the windrow, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay received hail.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_fog

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay experienced fog in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that no fog weighed on the windrow, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay experienced fog.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_heavy_dewfall

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay experienced heavy dewfall in the windrow, "false" the seller's affirmation that the windrow escaped heavy dewfall, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the windrow for this hay experienced heavy dewfall.

Data element weather_damage_windrow_assessment

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ none | minor | modest | substantial | unknown ]

This field allows the seller to disclose his assessment of weather damage to the hay while in the windrow.

Data element weather_damage_baled_rain

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received rainfall once baled, "false" the seller's affirmation that no rain fell on the bales, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the bales received rainfall.

Data element weather_damage_baled_snow

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received snow once baled, "false" the seller's affirmation that no snow fell on the bales, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the bales received snowfall.

Data element weather_damage_baled_sleet

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received sleet once baled, "false" the seller's affirmation that no sleet fell on the bales, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the bales received sleet.

Data element weather_damage_baled_hail

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay received hail once baled, "false" the seller's affirmation that no hail fell on the bales, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether the bales received hail.

Data element weather_damage_baled_moisture

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ true | false | unknown ]

This field may be implemented as an enumerated data type, with "true" representing the seller's disclosure that this hay experienced fog, heavy dewfall, or another source of excessive moisture once baled, "false" the seller's affirmation that no such phenomena affected the bales, and "unknown" the seller's disclosure that he has no knowledge of whether fog, heavy dewfall, or any other source of excessive moisture affected the bales.

Data element weather_damage_baled_assessment

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ None | Minor | Modest | Substantial | Unknown ]

This field allows the seller to disclose his assessment of weather damage to the hay once baled.

Data element hay_packaging_history

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Bales made in field | Re-baled from other hay bales | Cut from larger hay bales ]

Data element bale_binding

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Twine, two-tie | Twine, three-tie | Twine, four-tie | Twine, five-tie | Twine, six-tie | Wire, two-tie | Wire, three-tie | Fabric band, two-tie | Fabric band, three-tie | Plastic band, two-tie | Plastic band, three-tie | Metal band, two-tie | Metal band, three-tie | Netwrap | John Deere CoverEdge ]

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may benefit from validation of these values against the value provided for the field bale_shape. The "Netwrap" and "John Deere CoverEdge" binding types apply only to round bales.

Data element hay_compression

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ uncompressed | 2:1 ]

Hay may be mechanically compressed to increase density for transport purposes. This practice is commonplace for export purposes. We are not aware of any compression schemes other than "double compression" at present, so in theory a boolean data type would suffice for this field, but we have cast it as type "enum" to allow for the introduction of other compression ratios in the future.

Data element bale_weight_intended

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer representing the magnitude of the intended bale weight, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined in the baler.

Express bale weights, whether intended or as assessed, as an average across all bales offered for sale under this product definition. If lack of uniformity would make such an expression misleading, indicate as such using the value "Grower estimate--disparate bales" in the field bale_weight_assessment_method.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input and reasonable magnitudes.

Data element bale_weight_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ kilograms | pounds ]

Data element bale_weight_assessment

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer representing the magnitude of the assessed bale weight, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined by the seller.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input and reasonable magnitudes.

Data element bale_weight_assessment_method

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Truckload average | Explicit weight | Baler target | Grower estimate--uniform bales | Grower estimate--disparate bales ]

Data element bale_shape

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ rectangular | round ]

Data element bale_dimension_width

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer value representing the magnitude of the intended bale width, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined in the baler. Applicable to square bales only.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input, reasonable magnitudes, and bale shape.

Data element bale_dimension_height

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer value representing the magnitude of the intended bale height, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined in the baler. Applicable to square bales only.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input, reasonable magnitudes, and bale shape.

Data element bale_dimension_length

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer value representing the magnitude of the intended bale length, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined in the baler. Applicable to square or round bales.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input and reasonable magnitudes.

Data element bale_dimension_diameter

Data type
float
Valid values
A positive integer value representing the magnitude of the intended bale diameter, rounded to the nearest applicable unit, as determined in the baler. Applicable to round bales only.

Note:

Systems implementing this standard may wish to validate this field for numerical input, reasonable magnitudes, and bale shape.

Data element bale_dimension_units

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Centimeters | Inches ]

Data element hay_leafiness

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [Very leafy | Leafy | Slightly stemmy | Stemmy ]

Classification scheme sourced from page 6 of Bates.

Data element hay_texture

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [Very soft and pliable | Soft | Slightly harsh | Harsh, brittle ]

Classification scheme sourced from page 6 of Bates.

Data element hay_color

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Natural green color of crop | Light green | Yellow to slightly brownish | Brown or black ]

Classification scheme sourced from page 6 of Bates.

Data element organoleptic_factor_odor

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Clean--"crop smell" | Dusty | Moldy | Somewhat sour | Sour | Rotten or otherwise foul ]

Classification scheme adapted from page 6 of Bates.

Data element organoleptic_factor_moldy

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element organoleptic_factor_dusty

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element organoleptic_factor_rot

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element foreign_material_weeds

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element foreign_material_burs

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element foreign_material_insects

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_location_country

Data type
string
Valid values
A two-character string from the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code list, representing the applicable, two-letter code for the country where the hay is located.

Data element hay_location_subdivision

Data type
string
Valid values
A string of up to three alphanumeric characters from the ISO 3166-2 list of country subdivision codes, representing the state, dependent territory, administrative division, or other subdivision where the hay is located.

Data element hay_location_county

Data type
string
Valid values
A string identifying the county, parish, or other political subdivision, immediately following in jurisdictional rank the subdivision from the ISO 3166-2 list, where the hay is located.

Important especially in the U.S. for epidemiological and agricultural extension services purposes.

Data element hay_location_postal

Data type
string
Valid values
An alphanumeric string representing the postal code for the hay's location, if such code exists, is known, and the seller is willing to disclose this information. If hay is located in a country lacking a postal-code system, enter "None." If hay is located in a country with a postal-code system but the seller does not know the code, enter "Unknown." If the seller knows but is unwilling to disclose the postal code, enter "Withheld."

Note:

The location-related fields allow for the possibility that hay may be stored for shipping at some distance from its origin. Location rather than origin should drive shipping-cost analytics.

Designers of graphical interfaces may wish to allow users to copy origin to location fields easily, e.g., through ticking a checkbox.

Data element storage_days_fully_exposed

Data type
int
Valid values
A integer value representing how many days this hay has been fully exposed to the elements after baling, whether in the field or otherwise.

Data element storage_days_partially_sheltered

Data type
int
Valid values
A integer value representing how many days this hay has been only partially sheltered from the elements after baling, whether in the field or otherwise.

Data element storage_days_fully_sheltered

Data type
int
Valid values
An integer value representing how many days this hay has been fully sheltered from the elements after baling, whether in the field or otherwise.

Data element storage_bottom_bales

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Ground | Pallets | Wood | Concrete | Other ]

Data element hay_tested

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_sample_date

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the sample date for this hay.

Data element hay_sampler_independent

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_sampler_certified

Data type
boolean
Valid values
= [ true | false ]

Data element hay_sampling_protocol

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ NFTA | other ]

Data element hay_testing_laboratory

Data type
enum
Valid values
An enumerated value corresponding to a specific laboratory from an open, freely-available database maintained by Fieldgram or another organization or, if self-tested, "Internal lab".

Data element hay_testing_method

Data type
enum
Valid values
= [ Chemical analysis | Near Infrared Reflectance ("NIR") spectroscopy | Both chemical analysis and NIR ]

Data element hay_testing_date

Data type
datetime
Valid values
A date in YYYYMMDD format representing the testing date for this hay.

The goal with this field is to ensure that test results reasonably represent the current quality of the hay. Must confirm that grower can ascertain this date from test results.

Data element dry_matter

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding the percentage of dry matter in the sample. This is the complement of moisture content.

Data element moisture_content

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding the percentage of water in the sample. This is the complement of dry matter.

Data element crude_protein

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the crude protein content of the sample in percentage terms, on a dry-matter basis.

Data element relative_feed_value

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the RFV evaluation of the sample.

Data element acid_detergent_fiber

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the ADF content of the sample in percentage terms.

Data element neutral_detergent_fiber

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the NDF content of the sample in percentage terms.

Data element total_digestible_nutrients_100

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the TDN-100% evaluation of the sample in percentage terms.

Data element total_digestible_nutrients_90

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the TDN-90% evaluation of the sample in percentage terms.

Data element relative_feed_quality

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the RFQ evaluation of the sample. RFQ--important for dairy but not beef

Data element insoluble_crude_protein

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the insoluble crude protein content of the sample in percentage terms.

Data element adjusted_crude_protein

Data type
float
Valid values
A value corresponding to the adjusted crude protein content of the sample in percentage terms.

References

302 KAR 37:010. Standard Hay Grading Program for the State of Kentucky [PDF]. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Baker, R. and S. Ball. 2011. Variations in Alfalfa Hay Grading [PDF]. New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service, Guide A-329. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Ball, D.M., M. Collins, G.D. Lacefield, N.P. Martin, D.A. Mertens, K.E. Olson, D.H. Putnam, D.J. Undersander, and M.W. Wolf. 2001. Understanding Forage Quality [PDF]. American Farm Bureau Federation Publication 1-01, Park Ridge, IL, via National Forage Testing Association. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Bates, G. High Quality Hay Production [PDF]. University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Publication SP 437-A. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2013. D-03-14: Canadian Hay Certification Program to certify hay for export. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Carolina Farm Stewardship Association. Organic and Non-GMO Feed and Hay Sources Finder. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Corriher, V., T. Provin, and L. Redmon. 2010. Hay Production in Texas [PDF]. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, E-273. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Corriher, V. and L. Redmon. 2009. Bermudagrass Varieties, Hybrids and Blends for Texas [PDF]. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, SCS-2009-11. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Guerrero, J. 2001. Marketing Standards for Southern California Grass Export Hay [PDF]. University of California Cooperative Extension. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Lawrence, L. and R. Coleman. 2000. Choosing Hay for Horses [PDF]. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service, ID-146. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Marsalis, M., G. Hagevoort, and L. Lauriault. 2009. Hay Quality, Sampling, and Testing. New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service, Circular 641. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

National Alfalfa Alliance. Alfalfa: The High Quality Hay for Horses [PDF]. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Putnam, D. 2010. Changing Forage Quality Testing for Alfalfa Hay Markets [PDF]. University of California Department of Plant Sciences (UC Davis). Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Putnam, D. Undated. Recommended Principles for Proper Hay Sampling [PDF]. University of California, Davis, via National Forage Testing Association. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

Provin, T. and J. Pitt. 2002. Sampling Hay Bales and Pastures for Forage Analysis [PDF]. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, E-148. Retrieved June 19, 2018.